The Trump administration`s office proposed the USMCA citing new measures for digital commerce, strengthening the protection of trade secrets and adapting the rules of origin of automobiles among the benefits of the trade agreement. [112] Growing objections within Member States to U.S. trade policy and various aspects of the USMCA have had an impact on the signing and ratification process. Mexico said it would not sign the USMCA if tariffs on steel and aluminum were maintained. [62] Based on the results of the November 6, 2018 U.S. election, it has been speculated that the greater power of Democrats in the House of Representatives could jeopardize the passage of the USMCA agreement. [63] [64] Bill Pascrell, a senior Democrat, argued for changes to the USMCA to pass Congress. [65] Republicans have opposed the USMCA provisions that impose labour rights on LGBTQ and pregnant workers. [66] Forty Republicans in Congress have asked Mr. Trump not to sign an agreement that includes „the unprecedented integration of sexual orientation and the language of gender identity.” As a result, Trump ultimately signed a revised version that required each nation only to „policies it deems appropriate to protect workers from discrimination in the workplace” and said the United States would not be required to introduce additional non-discrimination laws. [67] The Canadian government expressed concern about the changes that have occurred under the USMCA agreement. [68] USMCA countries must comply with IMF standards to avoid exchange rate manipulation.

The agreement requires disclosure of market interventions. The IMF may be summoned as an arbitrator if the parties argue. [57] The agreement is good for 16 years, but a mandatory „joint review” will be carried out within the first six years to determine whether the three countries wish to renew the agreement for a further 16 years. It maintains the six-month opt-out agreement that existed before. The text also requires compliance with international agreements on endangered species, wetlands, Antarctic marine life, whaling and tuna fishing. An April 2019 analysis by the International Trade Commission on the likely effects of the USMCA estimated that if the agreement were fully implemented (six years after ratification), the agreement would increase the United States.